Policies and Guidelines

Instructions for Authors

Original and revised manuscripts must be in English and submitted online via online submission form. Complete instructions are as follows:

  1. The papers submitted to JIBM should make some significant contribution to Islamic economics, business, finance and management, either theoretical or applied, or discuss any business issue from an Islamic perspective.
  2. The JIBM does not charge any fee.
  3. Submission of a paper will be held to imply that it contains original unpublished work and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere (an undertaking form, may be furnished). It would also imply that the subject content did not impinge upon, violate or constitute a breach of any intellectual rights of any third party.
  4. The JIBM management shall have non-exclusive rights on the materials published in the JIBM; would be fully authorized to use or distribute the material for the purpose of Indexing / Abstracting, to translate into Urdu, or for any other related purposes; and would have power to enter into any agreement with third parties for distribution of the materials by any means and in any format.
  5. Since JIBM sends all papers for review, two hard copies or a soft editable copy should be submitted in final form for sending anonymously to the reviewers. Authors should give their surface and e-mail addresses and telephone/fax numbers at which they can be contacted.
  6. All papers must include a structured abstract, that contains (purpose, design, findings, originality, research implications, practical and social implications), of no more than 250 words, 6-8 Keywords and JEL classification, if applicable. The length of the article should preferably be between 5000-8,000 words. To see the sample papers. Please follow the link: JIBM Volume 11, Issue 1, 2021
  7. All papers should have an introductory section in which the objectives and methodology of the article are explained and a final section, which summarizes the main points discussed and the conclusions reached.
  8. Detailed derivations of the main mathematical results reported in the text should be submitted separately. These will not be published.
  9. References should be listed at the end of the text in APA style: Articles: El- Gari, Mohamed Ali (2003); Credit Risk in Islamic Banking and Finance; Islamic Economic Studies; Vol. 10, No. 2, (2003); pp. 1–23; Books: Khan, A. R. (1993), Financial Intermediation, New York: Springer Publishers. Page references to works referred to in the text should take the following form: El- Gamal (2006:128).
  10. The verses of the Holy Qur’ān quoted should carry sūrah number and ãyah number as (2:275).
  11. Complete reference to the source of aḥādīth quoted should be given like: Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, Kitāb al …. .
In-Text Citations

In-text citation of article is followed by the last name(s) of the author(s) and particular year in which the work has been published.

Anonymous Author

The work with anonymous author will be cited as “Anonymous” as author name and in the same way work without year of publication will be cited as “n.d.” as date.

If there are more than one author, will differentiate them by using “& or and” before the name of last author - when author(s) name(s) and date is inside the parenthesis, the “&” will be used and when author(s) names are outside the parenthesis, “and” will be used for distinguishing the authors. Examples of citation with and publication date inside the parenthesis and citation with author(s) name outside the parenthesis and date in parenthesis:

Single In-Text Citations
ROA is a common indicator of performance of management (Ross, Westerfield, & Jaffe, 2005).
Vong and Chan (2005) say that higher liquidity ratio does not necessarily generate higher profits which means that liquidity relates negatively to ROA.

Multiple In-Text Citations

When there are more than one studies in the in-text citation, it should be supported with alphabetical order within the parenthesis and multiple citation should be distinguished by colon (:). For instance;

  • Studies of reading in childhood have produced mixed results (Albright, Wayne, & Fortinbras, 2004; Gibson, 2011; Smith & Wexwood, 2010).
  • Smith and Wexwood (2010) reported an increase in the number of books read, whereas Gibson (2011) reported a decrease. Albright, Wayne, and Fortinbras (2004) found no significant results.
  • Ayub, M. (2009). Understanding Islamic finance (Vol. 462). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
  • El-Gamal, M. A. (2006). Islamic finance: Law, economics, and practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Book with Chapter and Editor
  • Warde, I. (2012). Status of the global Islamic finance industry. In C. Nethercott, & D. Eisenberg (Eds.), Islamic finance: Law and practice (1st ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Journal Article Reference
  • Willett, N. B. (2000); Islamic corporate reports. ABACUS, 36(1), 71-90.
  • Farook, S., Hassan, M. K., & Clinch, G. (2012). Profit distribution management by Islamic banks: An empirical investigation. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 52(3), 333-347.
  • Ullah, S., Jamali, D., & Harwood, I. A. (2014). Socially responsible Investment: Insights from Shari’a departments in Islamic financial institutions. Business Ethics: A European Review, 23(2), 218-233.
Multiple Publications in Single Year

If an author has multiple publications in the single year then all publication will be differentiated by (a, b, c). This order will be supported with citation made in the in-text.

  • Azmat, S., Skully, M., & Brown, K. (2014a). Credit risk in Islamic joint venture bond. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 103, 129-145.
  • Azmat, S., Skully, M., & Brown, K. (2014b). Issuer's choice of Islamic bond type. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, 28, 122-135.
  • Azmat, S., Skully, M., & Brown, K. (2014c). The Shariah compliance challenge in Islamic bond markets. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, 28, 47-57.
Conference Paper Reference
  • Saad, R. A. J., Aziz, N. M. A., & Sawandi, N. (2014). Islamic accountability framework in the zakat funds management. Paper presented at the International Conference on Accounting Studies, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Working or Discussion Paper
  • Author, initials. (year). Title of the working paper (Series title number). Place of publication: Publisher.
  • Sundararajan, V., & Errico, L. (2002). Islamic financial institutions and products in the global financial system: key issues in risk management and challenges ahead (Working Paper No. 192). International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, WA.
  • Sole, M. J. (2007). Introducing Islamic banks into conventional banking systems (Working Paper No. 175). International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, WA.
Dissertation/Thesis Reference
  • Dimmock, S. G. (2005). Essays in financial economics (Ph.D. dissertation). University of Illinois, Champaign, IL.
Government Report
  • General Accounting Office. (2003). Financial statement restatement database. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, WA.
  • Greuning, H. V., & Iqbal, Z. (2008). Risk Analysis for Islamic Banks. The World Bank, Washington, DC, WA.
News Paper Reference
Online Reference and Institutional Author
Plagiarism Policy

As a leading Islamic finance journal, Journal of Islamic Business and Management (JIBM) promises the clear peer review process and ensures that high standards of ethical behavior are met throughout the publication process. To assure this JIBM has an obligation to assist the scientific community especially in cases of plagiarism. In scientific writing, plagiarism is considered the most serious ethical dilemma.

What is Plagiarism?

According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, Plagiarism is defined as "taking and using the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one's own". Plagiarism is unacknowledged copying of ideas or text and is considered theft of intellectual property of another's work. Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of ethical practices. It may subject to sanctions like penalties, suspension, and even expulsion.

Note for Authors

JIBM does not allow any form of duplicate submissions containing plagiarism. We recommend researchers and authors to thorough check the article content before submitting to JIBM for publication. As a preliminary step authors are required to use "Plagiarism Checking Software" to check similarity index prior to submission, and submit the same report along with the research article.

JIBM Publications Plagiarism Policy

Before the start of formal Review Process, all the submitted articles will be checked online through “Similarity Index Software”. Similarity index is based on percentage of the text out of total number of words in the document. According to the rules of Higher Education Commission (HEC), the similarity index report must be less than 19%., while in case, any single source has similarity index more than 5% without citation, then it needs to be revised. If the plagiarism is observed by editorial team at any stage of publication process, the article will be rejected.

Note: Research articles having Plagiarism would not be considered for publication in JIBM.

We are committed to publish only quality research material; hence, double-blind peer review process involving experts from all over the world is adopted for the best possible effort.

Initial Review by Editorial Committee of JIBM

All articles are first checked with regard to plagiarism and evaluated by the editorial committee to see whether the received manuscripts fall within the scope of the JIBM and are free from any major scientific mistake.

The articles rejected at this stage might be having some scientific mistakes, lacking originality, have poor language/grammar, or outside the scope of the JIBM.

The articles meeting the minimum criteria are put into the peer review process; sent for review to one /two experts within Pakistan and two experts outside Pakistan. Normally, 2 to 3 weeks are given for the peer review, and in case of delay reminders are sent for early review.

Nature of the Review reports

A review form is sent in terms of which the reviewers are asked to evaluate whether the manuscript is:

  • A value addition to any of the areas falling under the scope of the JIBM;
  • Is scientifically and methodologically correct;
  • The result(s) are clearly presented and supported the conclusions?
  • Correctly referenced to previous relevant work?
  • Reviewers are also requested to review the manuscript in track review mode to suggest amendments, if needed.

    Having received at least two review reports, the author(s) are informed to revise the manuscripts in the light of the suggestions by the reviewers. In case major revision and resubmission are suggested, the revised manuscript is sent again to respective reviewer. If cleared, the paper is sent for fresh reviewer. If approved, the manuscript is sent for another review.

    The time taken in the review and revision process may depend on the response of the reviewers. Normally, it may take 1-3 months. But sometimes it may take even up to a year.

    The decision to accept, reject or ask for further revision is made at this stage keeping in view the respective reviews and the revised manuscript. Decision is conveyed to the authors accordingly.

JIBM believe that entire published contribution made by the authors is original. It is core accountability of the contributors to make sure that the order of the authors presented in the manuscript is as per the contribution made by each author. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to provide conflict of interest statement on the behalf of all other contributors of the manuscript.

Changes in Authorship

The journal’s editor will entertain the issues relevant to change of authorship; the author may approach the editor through the e-mail address mentioned on the journal’s website. Upon receiving the request for change in authorship, the editor will investigate the grounds provided for change in authorship and will make suitable decision.

‘Ghost,’ ‘guest,’ or ‘gift’ Authorship

The editor of the journal has right to take any firm action against unethical practices like ghost, guest, and gift authorship. Ghost author are those who are paid researchers, junior researchers and other external academicians. Guest or gift author are those who make very insignificant or no contribution in the paper. When editor came to know about such unethical practices then author will be removed from the paper.

Article Submission

JIBM put all its efforts to ensure that all contribution submitted by the author is respectful dealt by the editors, peer reviewers, and other concerned parties in accordance with JIBM guidelines. It is expected that all contribution met the publishing ethics guidelines of JIBM. In particular case, if it come in the note of editors then JIBM hold right to take different action against author:

  • Removal of the specified work.
  • Issuance of a modification or statement of concern.
  • Restriction on future contribution by same author.
  • The author’s institution, seniors or ethics committee may be notify about such practice.
a. Submission/Publication with Multiple Journals

The author guidelines of JIBM clearly states that the submitted papers has not been submitted anywhere else while submitting to JIBM or is under consideration for publication. JIBM maintain all communication with author, reviewers and editors carefully in order to deal with issues like conflict of interest and submission/publication with multiple journals. If redundant publication has proven right then we may cooperate/contact with different publishers and journals if necessary.

b. Ethical Issue of Plagiarism

After receiving the submission from authors, the contribution is subjected to plagiarism check for initial screening of the publication. It is expected that the relevant submission has been made with consent of all authors and the referred work in paper is credible and traceable.

Without permission re-production of script, statistics, and images is recognized as plagiarism and all claims regarding plagiarism will be probed by the JIBM.

c. Defamation

Although we believe on freedom of expression but JIBM avoid to considered any contribution based upon claims on individuals, and any organizations until it has come to true. We make our best efforts to ensure that the published work is free from defamatory, malicious, or offensive.

Conflict of Interest

JIBM ensures that there is no conflict of interest among the authors over published/submitted work by getting the signed conflict of interest statement. Our journals and editors properly review and update the policies regarding conflict of interest.

a. Authors

The author(s) clearly states that the following information in the manuscript or during the submission process where applicable.

  • If particular research project is backed by the funding agency/organization, then the author should disclose the information.
  • Disclose the role of funding agency/organization if any in the data analysis or any else.
  • Any financial and non-financial issues and associations that are seen as having the tendency of affecting the results explanation or editors, reviewers, or readers might desire to be aware of. This information can include “patent or stock ownership, membership on the board of directors” of a company, “membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, consultancy for a company”, or “entitlement to the speaker’s fees from a company”.
b. Editors
JIBM required the editors of the journals to declare:
  • Competing interests during contract and update their designation annually
  • Any conflict of interest rose during editorship before getting into any contract/position
  • Editors should not handle such manuscripts for which they might find conflicts of interest arising from their side and reduce the chances of probable conflicts of interest via assigning the reviewers or handling editors.
c. Referees

Editors or the journal administrators should keep possible “conflicts of interest” in mind during assignment of reviewers. Some journals assure through review request that invitation acceptance does not mean that any “financial or competing interest” exists. If a reviewer accepts having possible “conflict of interest”, then another reviewer is considered by editor. If a reviewer fails to mention the conflict of interest, he/she may be removed from the journal database. Editors

a. Editorial Independence

Editors encompass entire editorial “independence”. Even though, JIBM and any publishing connections can interact with editors for discussion on strategy, process, and policy, editors have complete discretion to accept or reject manuscripts forwarded for business and political purposes.

We anticipate that JIBM- will formulate clear procedure and policies for the editors or the members of the editorial board for effective handling of contributions so that these submissions are subjected to peer review of the same level.

b. Peer review and confidentially

JIBM does support double-blind peer review process and also persuade journals to “publish their review procedure as element of their submission guidelines”.

JIBM require the handling of manuscript confidentially by both editor and reviewers. In case the reviewer wishes to assign the review or wants to have a colleague's opinion on a particular section of the paper, they are required to discuss it with the editor before moving forward.

c. Ethics of Research

JIBM aims at promoting the highest research standards by its publishing procedures. By ensuring that all the published research is based on “fair and ethical basis”, we prove the importance of research ethics in our work. We consider multiple research areas for publication, most of which have their unique standards and approaches of research governance.

d. Falsification and Fabrication

Papers which are submitted having “false or fabricated data” will be forward to Author as soon as possible and an explanation will be solicited. If the author provides no explanation or does it unsatisfactorily, the journal will notify the author's institution, local ethical committee, or superior regarding this misconduct. The journal may restrict on submission of additional manuscript in future for particular time.

Author Misconduct

It is advised that in case of any complaints, the editor or editorial office should be intimated about it confidentially instead of contacting the author directly or publicly, and the matter should stay in confidence till the time an appropriate solution is figured out.

Prior to Publication

During the review process, any submitted manuscript can raise certain concerns among the reviewers.

  • In case of valid concern, the reviewer should be able to prove its validity (e.g., suspicious data in the paper).
  • Later, the reviewer should discuss the concern with the author and demand clarification where necessary. Reviewer should, however, avoid using any indecent or accusative language and restrict the conversation to the concerned facts only.
  • The review process should not be proceeded until the concerns are fully justified.
  • If the author manages to remove all the concerns, then the review process can be continued with the specific changes made by the author.
  • If the author admits having performed the misconduct or has no explanation for the concerns raised, then the manuscript would be rejected immediately.
  • The concerned reviewer should be apprised of the results after the resolution of the matter.
After Publication

There can be potential concerns raised by the reader regarding a published manuscript. Just as in the scenario above, the reader should be told to validate the concern first and then the concern should be forwarded to the author. If the complaint is found to be based on unsound grounds, it should be rejected. Action should be taken if one of the following scenarios is there:

  • If there is content missing from the manuscript, then there is need to publish a correction statement that can add the required information to the published version (e.g., undisclosed conflict of interests).
  • An expression of concern can be published along with the article if misconduct has been proven on part of the author. It is more preferred for effective resolution of the matter.
  • In case of serious concerns of plagiarism or data fabrication, retraction of the published article can be requested. More details are given below.
  • Just like above, the concerned reader should be apprised of the results after the resolution of the matter.
Further Action and Retraction
  • In case of any concerns regarding your manuscript, publisher can be contacted for legal support as required. Resources for editors, including guidelines and training materials, can be obtained from the Committee on Publication Ethics.
  • If severe misconduct is found, we can consider raising the issue with the author's institution, either to their superior and/or to the person responsible for governing the research.
  • If plagiarism is found, editor of other journal(s) involved and the victim should be informed.
  • Note that allegations of misconduct, and actions taken against them such as a retraction, can affect someone’s career negatively. Therefore, sensitivity, tact, and confidentiality are required for handling author misconduct.
Reviewer Misconduct
  • Reviewer misconduct can also take place as rude or nonconstructive reviews or, to the extreme end, misuse of the author’s data.
  • Editors rely on the reviewers greatly in the review process. They are allowed to access the privileged information (i.e., unpublished research) and their recommendations can completely change the fate of a manuscript. However, this trust is taken for granted rarely.
  • Minor problems are easy to handle. If the work of any reviewer is not satisfactory, of poor quality, and includes rude comments, it is wise to avoid future interaction with such reviewers and delete their indecent comments.

As a leading Islamic finance journal, JIBM ensures that high standards of ethical behaviour are met throughout the publication process. In our ethical standards and procedures, we highlight how authors, editors, reviewers, publishers, and society partners should act ethically.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors

This journal ensures that the integrity of the scientific record is upheld. Authors should not interpret the research results wrongly as it can affect the trust in the journal negatively. It can also put professionalism of scientific authorship and the entire scientific endeavor at stake.

In order to maintain research integrity, the author should stick to the following rules;

  1. Manuscript submitted to JIBM is not being under consideration to any other journal.
  2. Avoid ‘Self Plagiarism’ from your own previously published work.
  3. ‘Salami-publishing’ is prohibited.
  4. Data fabrication or manipulation (Including graphics) is not welcomed.
  5. Author should come up with unique research.
  6. Basic information ought to be spoken to precisely in the paper.
  7. A paper must contain adequate detail and references to allow others to cite the work.
  8. Fake or purposely erroneous explanations constitute exploitative conduct and are inacceptable.
  9. Author must ensure the originality of their work.
  10. Always acknowledge the work of others properly.
  11. Presenting a similar composition to more than one journal simultaneously constitutes un ethical conduct and is inacceptable.
  12. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed.
  13. Authors should check that the author group, corresponding author, and order of authors are correct at submission. Changes in authorship or the order of authors will not be entertained after the acceptance of a manuscript.
  14. If authors are added or deleted at revision stage, it may be warranted justifiably. For justifying this change, a letter must be sent with the revised manuscript addressing the role of the author(s) just added or deleted. Further documentation may be needed for processing your request.
  15. If you request to add or remove an author as a result of an authorship dispute after acceptance, then such a request will only be considered if it is intimated through a directed notification by the institute or independent body and/or with consensus of all authors.
  16. Authors should provide all the relevant documentation or data on request for verifying the validity of the results. They can be submitted as raw data, samples, records, etc. Any sensitive information dealing with confidential or proprietary data is not included.
Action Over Author’s Misconduct

If the author is suspected of misconduct, the journal will investigate the matter as per the JIBM guidelines. If the accusation proves to be valid after investigation, the alleged author will be called to clarify his/her position. If misconduct has been proven, then the Editor-in-Chief can implement one of the following measures:

  • If the article is still being considered, it will be sent back to the author after rejection.
  • If the article is available online in the published form, either an erratum will be issued with the article or article will be retracted, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction. The reason for the action taken must be specified in the erratum or retraction note. It should be noted that retraction refers to the case where the paper remains on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and reason for retraction is given in a note accompanying the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.

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Authors who publish in the Journal of Islamic Business and Management (JIBM) can share their manuscripts with any research repository, e.g., Academia, Researchgate, SSRN, or any other institution's repository. The authors can share the manuscripts at different levels:

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