Veiled and Unveiled University Faculty: A Comparison on their Needs for Effective Classroom Management in Relevance with the Islamic Perspective

Summera Malik, Malik Faisal Azeem, Adil T. Paracha
Published Online: June 2020

Religion is one of the most important source of beliefs and values, which play a pivotal role in shaping behavior, while its implications particularly for consumers’ psychology remain nascent. Grounding on Social Exchange Theory (SET), this study will address the impact of antecedents on brand loyalty in the presence of religiosity. For the purpose, total 460 consumers responded to the survey questionnaire. Based on Structural Equation Modeling, the study found that religious values play a major part in shaping consumer’s brand loyalty and develop theoretical linkages in previously neglected area. AS regards practical implications of the study, managers can make better customer engagement programs like involving them in social causes. Study also highlights some future avenues.


Veiled Teacher, Unveiled Teacher, Facial Expressions, Classroom Management